Colombia gebracht door Theo Herbots // Brought by Theo Herbots


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Colombia was one of the three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others are Ecuador and Venezuela). A nearly five-decade long conflict between government forces and anti-government insurgent groups, principally the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) heavily funded by the drug trade, escalated during the 1990s. More than 31,000 former paramilitaries had demobilized by the end of 2006 and the United Self Defense Forces of Colombia as a formal organization had ceased to function. In the wake of the paramilitary demobilization, emerging criminal groups arose, whose members include some former paramilitaries. The insurgents lack the military or popular support necessary to overthrow the government, but continue attacks against civilians. Large areas of the countryside are under guerrilla influence or are contested by security forces. In October 2012, the Colombian Government started formal peace negotiations with the FARC aimed at reaching a definitive bilateral ceasefire and incorporating demobilized FARC members into mainstream society and politics. The Colombian Government has stepped up efforts to reassert government control throughout the country, and now has a presence in every one of its administrative departments. Despite decades of internal conflict and drug related security challenges, Colombia maintains relatively strong democratic institutions characterized by peaceful, transparent elections and the protection of civil liberties.
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Only South American country with coastlines on both the North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea
Location: Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Ecuador and Panama
Geographic coordinates: 4 00 N, 72 00 W
Area: total: 1,138,910 sq km
land: 1,038,700 sq km
water: 100,210 sq km
note: includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, and Serrana BankSize comparison: slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land Boundaries: total: 6,309 km
border countries: Brazil 1,644 km, Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km, Peru 1,800 km, Venezuela 2,050 km
Coastline: 3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km)
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands
Terrain: flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains, eastern lowland plains (Llanos)
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico Cristobal Colon 5,775 m note: nearby Pico Simon Bolivar also has the same elevation
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds, hydropower
Land use: arable land: 1.84%
permanent crops: 1.66%
other: 96.5% (2011)
Irrigated land: 10,870 sq km (2011)
Natural hazards: highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional earthquakes; periodic droughts volcanism: Galeras (elev. 4,276 m) is one of Colombia’s most active volcanoes, having erupted in 2009 and 2010 causing major evacuations; it has been deemed a “Decade Volcano” by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Nevado del Ruiz (elev. 5,321 m), 129 km (80 mi) west of Bogota, erupted in 1985 producing lahars that killed 23,000 people; the volcano last erupted in 1991; additionally, after 500 years of dormancy, Nevado del Huila reawakened in 2007 and has experienced frequent eruptions since then; other historically active volcanoes include Cumbal, Dona Juana, Nevado del Tolima, and Purace
Current Environment Issues: deforestation; soil and water quality damage from overuse of pesticides; air pollution, especially in Bogota, from vehicle emissions
International Environment Agreements: party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
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Nationality: noun: Colombian(s)
adjective: Colombian
Ethnic groups: mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed black-Amerindian 3%, Amerindian 1%
Languages: Spanish (official)
Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, other 10%
Population: 45,745,783 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 25.8% (male 6,032,725/female 5,755,437)
15-24 years: 18.2% (male 4,241,621/female 4,101,552)
25-54 years: 41.5% (male 9,376,745/female 9,597,744)
55-64 years: 8% (male 1,705,451/female 1,962,606)
65 years and over: 6.5% (male 1,242,980/female 1,728,922) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 51.2 %
youth dependency ratio: 41.9 %
elderly dependency ratio: 9.3 %
potential support ratio: 10.7 (2013)
Median age: total: 28.6 years
male: 27.6 years
female: 29.5 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.1% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 16.98 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 5.33 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 75% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 1.7% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas – population: BOGOTA (capital) 8.744 million; Medellin 3.497 million; Cali 2.352 million; Barranquilla 1.836 million; Bucaramanga 1.065 million (2011)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother’s mean age at first birth: 21.4 note: Median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 92 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 15.46 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 18.77 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 11.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.02 years
male: 71.82 years
female: 78.42 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 79.1% (2010)
Health expenditures: 7.6% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 1.35 physicians/1,000 population (2002)
Hospital bed density: 1 beds/1,000 population (2007)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 99% of population
rural: 72% of population
total: 92% of population
urban: 1% of population
rural: 28% of population
total: 8% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 82% of population
rural: 63% of population
total: 77% of population
urban: 18% of population
rural: 37% of population
total: 23% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate: 0.5% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS: 160,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS – deaths: 14,000 (2009 est.)
Obesity – adult prevalence rate: 17.3% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 3.4% (2010)
Education expenditures: 4.5% of GDP (2011)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93.6%
male: 93.5%
female: 93.7% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 14 years
male: 13 years
female: 14 years (2011)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 23%
male: 18.2%
female: 29.9% (2008)
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Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Colombia
conventional short form: Colombia
local long form: Republica de Colombia
local short form: Colombia
Government type: republic; executive branch dominates government structure
Capital: name: Bogota
geographic coordinates: 4 36 N, 74 05 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 32 departments (departamentos, singular – departamento) and 1 capital district* (distrito capital); Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico, Bogota*, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Guainia, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, Archipielago de San Andres, Providencia y Santa Catalina (colloquially San Andres y Providencia), Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes, Vichada
Independence: 20 July 1810 (from Spain)
National holiday: Independence Day, 20 July (1810)
Constitution: 5 July 1991; amended many times
Legal system: civil law system influenced by the Spanish and French civil codes
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Juan Manuel SANTOS Calderon (since 7 August 2010); Vice President Angelino GARZON (since 7 August 2010); note – the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Juan Manuel SANTOS Calderon (since 7 August 2010); Vice President Angelino GARZON (since 7 August 2010)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: president and vice president elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 30 May 2010 with a runoff election 20 June 2010 (next to be held in May 2014)

election results: Juan Manuel SANTOS Calderon elected president in runoff election; percent of vote – Juan Manuel SANTOS Calderon 69.06%, Antanas MOCKUS 27.52%

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of the Senate or Senado (102 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (166 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: Senate – last held on 14 March 2010 (next to be held in March 2014); Chamber of Representatives – last held on 14 March 2010 (next to be held in March 2014)

election results: Senate – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – U Party 28, PC 22, PL 17, PIN 9, CR 8, PDA 8, Green Party 5, other parties 5; Chamber of Representatives – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – U Party 47, PC 38, PL 37, CR 15, PIN 12, PDA 4, Green Party 3, other parties 10; note – as of 1 January 2011, the Senate currently has 101 seats after one seat became vacant due to a PL senator losing his seat for illegal collusion with the FARC; the Chamber of Representatives also has one seat vacant after only 165 of the 166 candidates were credentialed

Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (consists of the Civil-Agrarian and Labor Chambers each with 7 judges, and the Penal Chamber with 9 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 magistrates); Council of State (consists of 27 magistrates) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the Congress from candidates submitted by the president; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Court magistrates – 3 nominated by the president, 3 by the Supreme Court, and 3 elected by the Senate; judges elected for individual 2-8 year terms

subordinate courts: Superior Tribunals (appellate courts for each of the judicial districts); regional courts; civil municipal courts; Superior Military Tribunal; first instance administrative courts

Political parties and leaders: Alternative Democratic Pole or PDA [Clara LOPEZ] Conservative Party or PC [Efrain CEPEDA Sarabia] Green Party [Jorge LONDONO Ulloa; Enrique PENALOSA] Liberal Party or PL [Simon GAVIRIA Munoz] National Integration Party or PIN [Angel ALIRIO Moreno] Radical Change or CR [Antonio GUERRA de la Espriella] Social National Unity Party or U Party [Juan Francisco LOZANO Ramirez] note: Colombia has seven major political parties, and numerous smaller movements
Political pressure groups and leaders: Central Union of Workers or CUT Colombian Confederation of Workers or CTC General Confederation of Workers or CGT National Liberation Army or ELN Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia or FARC note: FARC and ELN are the two largest insurgent groups active in Colombia
International organization participation: BCIE, BIS, CAN, Caricom (observer), CD, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-3, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNSC (temporary), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): Andean condor
National anthem: name: “Himno Nacional de la Republica de Colombia” (National Anthem of the Republic of Colombia)
lyrics/music: Rafael NUNEZ/Oreste SINDICI
note: adopted 1920; the anthem was created from an inspirational poem written by President Rafael NUNEZ
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Carlos Alfredo URRUTIA Valenzuela
chancery: 2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-8338
FAX: [1] (202) 232-8643
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Beverly Hills (CA), Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico) consulate(s): Newark (NJ)
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Michael MCKINLEY
embassy: Calle 24 Bis No. 48-50, Bogota, D.C.
mailing address: Carrera 45 No. 24B-27, Bogota, D.C.
telephone: [57] (1) 275-2000
FAX: [57] (1) 275-4600
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Colombia’s consistently sound economic policies and aggressive promotion of free trade agreements in recent years have bolstered its ability to face external shocks. Real GDP has grown more than 4% per year for the past three years, continuing almost a decade of strong economic performance. All three major ratings agencies have upgraded Colombia’s government debt to investment grade. Nevertheless, Colombia depends heavily on oil exports, making it vulnerable to a drop in oil prices. Economic development is stymied by inadequate infrastructure, weakened further by recent flooding. Moreover, the unemployment rate of 10.3% in 2012 is still one of Latin America’s highest. The SANTOS Administration’s foreign policy has focused on bolstering Colombia’s commercial ties and boosting investment at home. The US-Colombia Free Trade Agreement (FTA) was ratified by the US Congress in October 2011 and implemented in 2012. Colombia has signed or is negotiating FTAs with a number of other countries, including Canada, Chile, Mexico, Switzerland, the EU, Venezuela, South Korea, Turkey, Japan, China, Costa Rica, Panama, and Israel. Foreign direct investment – notably in the oil and gas sectors – reached a record $10 billion in 2008 but dropped to $7.2 billion in 2009, before beginning to recover in 2010, and reached a record high of nearly $16 billion in 2012. Colombia is the third largest Latin American exporter of oil to the United States, and the United States’ largest source of imported coal. Inequality, underemployment, and narcotrafficking remain significant challenges, and Colombia’s infrastructure requires major improvements to sustain economic expansion.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $511.1 billion (2012 est.) $491.5 billion (2011 est.) $460.8 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $366 billion (2012 est.)
GDP – real growth rate: 4% (2012 est.) 6.6% (2011 est.) 4% (2010 est.)
GDP – per capita (PPP): GDP – per capita (PPP): $11,000 (2012 est.) $10,700 (2011 est.) $10,100 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars

Gross national saving: 20.4% of GDP (2012 est.) 20.9% of GDP (2011 est.) 19.1% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP – composition, by end use: household consumption: 61.2%
government consumption: 16.5%
investment in fixed capital: 23.9%
investment in inventories: -0.4%
exports of goods and services: 18.3%
imports of goods and services: -19.5% (2012 est.)
GDP – composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 61.2%
government consumption: 16.5%
investment in fixed capital: 23.9%
investment in inventories: -0.4%
exports of goods and services: 18.3%
imports of goods and services: -19.5% (2012 est.)
Agriculture – products: coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables; shrimp; forest products
Industries: textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds
Industrial production growth rate: 2.4% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 23.09 million (2012 est.)
Labor force – by occupation: agriculture: 18%
industry: 13%
services: 68% (2011 est.)
Unemployment rate: 10.4% (2012 est.) 10.8% (2011 est.)
Population below poverty line: 34.1% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 0.9%
highest 10%: 44.4% (2010 est.)
Distribution of family income – Gini index: 58.5 (2011) 53.8 (1996)
Budget: revenues: $107.6 billion
expenditures: $107.1 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 29.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 40.6% of GDP (2012 est.) 42.9% of GDP (2011 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities

Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.2% (2012 est.) 3.4% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$13.29 billion (2012 est.) -$9.978 billion (2011 est.)
Exports: $59.96 billion (2012 est.) $56.68 billion (2011 est.)
Exports – commodities: petroleum, coal, emeralds, coffee, nickel, cut flowers, bananas, apparel
Exports – partners: US 39.4%, Spain 5.1%, China 4.9%, Netherlands 4.3% (2012)
Imports: $53.77 billion (2012 est.) $50.52 billion (2011 est.)
Imports – commodities: industrial equipment, transportation equipment, consumer goods, chemicals, paper products, fuels, electricity
Imports – partners: US 30.2%, China 11.5%, Mexico 10.3%, Brazil 5.2% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $37 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $31.91 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt – external: $82.42 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $76.92 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment – at home: $111.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $95.65 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad: $31.63 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $31.88 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $201.3 billion (31 December 2011) $208.5 billion (31 December 2010) $133.3 billion (31 December 2009)
Exchange rates: Colombian pesos (COP) per US dollar – 1,798 (2012 est.) 1,848 (2011 est.) 1,898.6 (2010 est.) 2,157.6 (2009) 2,243.6 (2008)
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Electricity – production: 56.28 billion kWh (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 46
Electricity – consumption: 46.87 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity – exports: 1.294 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity – imports: 8.22 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity – installed generating capacity: 13.54 million kW (2009 est.)
Electricity – from fossil fuels: 32.9% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity – from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity – from hydroelectric plants: 66.6% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity – from other renewable sources: 0.4% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil – production: 944,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Crude oil – exports: 777,900 bbl/day (2009)
Crude oil – imports: 10 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil – proved reserves: 2.417 billion bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products – production: 316,500 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products – consumption: 287,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products – exports: 52,680 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products – imports: 6,045 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas – production: 11.26 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas – consumption: 9.08 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas – exports: 2.18 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas – imports: 40,290 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas – proved reserves: 134.1 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 72.31 million Mt (2010 est.)
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Telephones in use: 7.127 million (2011)
country comparison to the world: 26
Cellular Phones in use: 46.2 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: modern system in many respects with a nationwide microwave radio relay system, a domestic satellite system with 41 earth stations, and a fiber-optic network linking 50 cities; telecommunications sector liberalized during the 1990s; multiple providers of both fixed-line and mobile-cellular services

domestic: fixed-line connections stand at about 15 per 100 persons; mobile cellular telephone subscribership is about 100 per 100 persons; competition among cellular service providers is resulting in falling local and international calling rates and contributing to the steep decline in the market share of fixed line services

international: country code – 57; multiple submarine cable systems provide links to the US, parts of the Caribbean, and Central and South America; satellite earth stations – 10 (6 Intelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 3 fully digitalized international switching centers) (2011)

Broadcast media: combination of state-owned and privately owned broadcast media provide service; more than 500 radio stations and many national, regional, and local TV stations (2007)
Internet country code: .co
Internet hosts: 4.41 million (2012)
Internet users: 22.538 million (2009)
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Airports: 836 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 8
Airports (paved runways): total 121
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 39
914 to 1,523 m: 53
under 914 m: 18 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 715
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 25
914 to 1,523 m: 201
under 914 m: 488 (2013)
Heliports: 3 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 4,991 km; oil 6,796 km; refined products 3,429 km (2013)
Railways: total 874 km
standard gauge: 150 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 498 km 0.950-m gauge; 226 km 0.914-m gauge (2008)
Roadways: total 141,374 km
Waterways: 24,725 km (18,300 km navigable; the most important waterway, the River Magdalena, of which 1,488 km is navigable, is dredged regularly to ensure the safe passage of cargo vessels and container barges) (2012)
Merchant marine: total 12

by type: cargo 9, chemical tanker 1, petroleum tanker 2

registered in other countries: 4 (Antigua and Barbuda 1, Panama 2, Portugal 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Atlantic Ocean (Caribbean) – Cartagena, Santa Marta, Turbo; Pacific Ocean – Buenaventura
river port(s): Barranquilla (Rio Magdalena)
oil/gas terminal(s): Covenas offshore terminal dry bulk cargo port(s): Puerto Bolivar (coal)
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Military branches: National Army (Ejercito Nacional), Republic of Colombia Navy (Armada Republica de Colombia, ARC, includes Naval Aviation, Naval Infantry (Infanteria de Marina, IM), and Coast Guard), Colombian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea de Colombia, FAC) (2012)
Military service age and obligation: 18-24 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; service obligation is 18 months (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 11,692,647
females age 16-49: 11,727,625 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 9,150,400
females age 16-49: 9,861,760 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 430,634
female: 413,974 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 3.8% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes – International: in December 2007, ICJ allocated San Andres, Providencia, and Santa Catalina islands to Colombia under 1928 Treaty but did not rule on 82 degrees W meridian as maritime boundary with Nicaragua; managed dispute with Venezuela over maritime boundary and Venezuelan-administered Los Monjes Islands near the Gulf of Venezuela; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics, guerrilla, and paramilitary activities penetrate all neighboring borders and have caused Colombian citizens to flee mostly into neighboring countries; Colombia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Jamaica, and the US assert various claims to Bajo Nuevo and Serranilla Bank
Refugees and internally displaced persons: IDPs: 3.9-5.5 million (conflict between government and illegal armed groups and drug traffickers since 1985) (2011)
stateless persons: 12 (2012)
Illicit drugs: illicit producer of coca, opium poppy, and cannabis; world’s leading coca cultivator with 116,000 hectares in coca cultivation in 2009, a 3% decrease over 2008, producing a potential of 270 mt of pure cocaine; the world’s largest producer of coca derivatives; supplies cocaine to nearly all of the US market and the great majority of other international drug markets; in 2010, aerial eradication dispensed herbicide to treat over 101,000 hectares combined with manual eradication of 61,000 hectares; a significant portion of narcotics proceeds are either laundered or invested in Colombia through the black market peso exchange; important supplier of heroin to the US market; opium poppy cultivation is estimated to have fallen to 1,100 hectares in 2009 while pure heroin production declined to 2.1 mt; most Colombian heroin is destined for the US market (2008)
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Acerca de ORGANO™

“Todo comenzó con una extraordinaria taza de café” ORGANO™ comenzó en 2008 en Richmond, BC, Canadá, en una pequeña tienda con tan sólo tres empleados.

Vriendelijke groet
Theo Herbots

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Bron: Learning

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Source: CIA – The World Factbook

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